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              瀏覽: 1201發布: 2021-12-15






              How Should One Read a Book?

              It is simple enough to say that since books have classesfiction, biography, poetrywe should separate them and take from each what it is right that each should give us. Yet few people ask from books what books can give us. Most commonly we come to books with blurred and divided minds, asking of fiction that it shall be true, of poetry that it shall be false, of biography that it shall be flattering, of history that it shall enforce our own prejudices. If we could banish all such preconceptions when we read, that would be an admirable beginning. Do not dictate to your author; try to become him. Be his fellow-worker and accomplice. If you hang back, and reserve and criticize at first, you are preventing yourself from getting the fullest possible value from what you read. But if you open your mind as widely as possible, then signs and hints of almost imperceptible fineness, from the twist and turn of the first sentences, will bring you into the presence of a human being unlike any other. Steep yourself in this, acquaint yourself with this, and soon you will find that your author is giving you, or attempting to give you, something far more definite. The thirty-two chapters of a novelif we consider how to read a novel firstare an attempt to make something as formed and controlled as a building; but words are more impalpable than bricks; reading is a longer and more complicated process than seeing. Perhaps the quickest way to understand the elements of what a novelist is doing is not to read, but to write; to make your own experiment with the dangers and difficulties of words. Recall, then, some event that has left a distinct impression on youhow at the corner of the street, perhaps, you passed two people talking. A tree shook; an electric light danced; the tone of the talk was Comic, but also tragic; a whole vision,an entire conception, seemed contained in that moment.

              But when you attempt to reconstruct it in words, you will find that it breaks into a thousand conflicting impressions. Some must be subdued;others emphasized; in the process you will lose, probably, all grasp upon the emotion itself. Then turn from your blurred and littered pages to the opening pages of some great novelistDefoe, Jane Austen, Hardy. Now you will be better able to appreciate their mastery. To read a novel is a difficult and complex art. You must be capable not only of great finesse of perception, but of great boldness of imagination if you are going to make use of all that the novelistthe great artist gives you.












              In recent years,there are heated debates on the so-called“second generation”,including“the second rich generation”,“the second official generation”and“the second poor generation”. Since the adoption of the reform and opening-up policy in China,the economic system and the original simple social structure have witnessed great changes,especially the differentiation and reorganization of the social classes. Nowadays,the social structure tends to be stable and developed,however there are few opportunities but high cost for social members to improve their status and move to the upper part of the social ladder. Therefore, it is hard to change the phenomenon of the so-called “second-generation”in a short time. However,this term reflects that many people like to label different social classes,which indicates the insufficient social tolerance which,on the other hand,is an indicator of social progress. The existence of different classes can push the entire society to advance and the individuals to pursue their all-round free development. Society should provide channels and space for common members to develop themselves and to move to the upper part of the social ladder.






              On the Pressures and Politics of Waiting in Line

              The British queue up and the Americans wait in line, except for New Yorkers, who wait on line. No one seems to know the reason for this local idiom. It is something to ponder while waiting in/on line.

              Another thing to ponder: It is estimated that Americans spend up to five years of their lives in that tedious, stressful but unavoidable process known as waiting. Studies show that otherwise rational people act irrationally when forced to stand in line or wait in crowds, even becoming violent. Standing in line is not a necessary requisite to being part of a queue, as Dr. Saaty pointed out. One can be trapped on "hold" at the end of a phone line, stacked up over an airport, tied up in highway traffic, delayed in a doctors crowded waiting room.

              Queues are a grim reality of city life. While there seems to be no consensus on the city's worst line, the ones mentioned most often in talks here and there were lunchtime lines at banks and post offices and, among younger people, movie lines and college-registration lines.

              "Bank lines," said Mark Sloane, an investor. "No matter what time of day you bank, the number of tellers is inadequate to the number of patrons. Even when the bank is open you see long lines in front of the money machines outside. "

              In any line the fundamental rule is first come, first served, or what social scientists call "distributive justice." In theory, then, everyone should have an equal interest in keeping an orderly line. In practice, the interest varies depending on one's position in line. Researchers demonstrated this when they took turns barging into two kinds of lines-railroad ticket lines at Grand Central Terminal and theater ticket lines at Duffy Square.

              In both cases the strongest protests came from the immediate victims or the people directly behind the line jumpers. People farther down the line complained less or not at all, even though they had been equally penalized by losing a place.









              排隊,英國人說queue up, 美國人除紐約人說wait on line外, 都用wait in line。紐約人為什么要用那個地方性的說法,似乎沒人知道,這倒是可以在排隊時好好思索一番的問題。







              It is China's fundamental stand and long-term strategic guiding principle to expand domestic demand in its economic and social development. China has entered a period when the pace of industrialization and urbanization is being quickened, the people's income level is increasing and their consumption structure is being upgraded. While changing its mode of foreign trade growth,increasing imports and strengthening intellectual property protection, and continuing to make contributions to global trade and the world economy, China keeps up its driving force to maintain sustained economic development through its huge domestic demand and domestic market. This has determined that China should and most likely will mainly rely on domestic demand for its development. China will ensure that investment in fixed assets will increase at a reasonable scale and pace so as to bring into better play the role of investment in economic growth. By implementing correct income distribution and consumption policies, China is relying more on domestic demand and consumption to promote its economic development. In recent years, domestic investment and consumption needs are increasing at a rather rapid rate.



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